Names of Japan
The English word Japan derives from the Chinese pronunciation of the Japanese name, pronounced Nippon About this sound listen or Nihon About this sound listen in Japanese. The pronunciation Nippon is more formal, and is in Japanese used for most official purposes, including international sporting events.
From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku, meaning “the Empire of Great Japan”. Today the name Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku is used as a formal modern-day equivalent; countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku , meaning “country”, “nation” or “state”.
Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin and to their language as Nihongo . Both Nippon and Nihon mean “sun-origin” and are often translated as Land of the Rising Sun. This nomenclature comes from Japanese missions to Imperial China and refers to Japan’s eastward position relative to China. Before Nihon came into official use, Japan was known as Wa or Wakoku .
The English word for Japan came to the West via early trade routes. The early Mandarin or possibly Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters ?? ‘Japan’ is Zeppen [z??p?n]. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo, and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Malacca in the 16th century. Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe. It was first recorded in English in a 1565 letter, spelled Giapan.